Research Report: Trilateral Arms Control? Perspectives from Washington, Moscow, and Beijing

With the end of the INF Treaty in 2019, trilateral arms control – meaning arms control between the United States, Russia, and China – has gained center stage. Only shortly after the U.S

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. President Trump declared that he wants a new nuclear pact to be signed by both Russia and China. Other U.S. administration officials have set the goal of including China in a future follow-on framework to the New START agreement, which expires in February 2021. However, could trilateral arms control be possible at all, and what would be necessary conditions?

In this IFSH Research Report, internationally renowned experts Alexey Arbatov (Russia), David Santoro (United States), and Tong Zhao (China) discuss what is possible and what is not. Edited by Ulrich Kühn (IFSH), the report includes a number of very specific proposals, including from China, on how to move forward on trilateral arms control.

Download the full report from the website of the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy, University of Hamburg.


  • Ulrich Kühn (editor) is Head of the “Arms Control and Emerging Technologies” program at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg (IFSH).
  • Alexey Arbatov is Head of the Center for International Security at IMEMO, a former participant of the START-I negotiations (1991), and member of the Russian State Duma (1994-2003).
  • David Santoro is Vice President and Director for Nuclear Policy at Pacific Forum, a nonprofit foreign policy think tank based in Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Tong Zhao is a Senior Fellow in the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace’s Nuclear Policy Program based at the Carnegie-Tsinghua Center for Global Policy.

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